The electoral victory of the Democratic Party of Japan (DPJ) in late August put an end to 55 years of virtually unbroken rule by the Liberal Democratic Party (LDP), widely criticised as lukewarm towards clean energy. The DPJ has promised to reduce Japan's greenhouse gas emissions by 25% from 1990 levels by 2020, compared to cuts of 8% promised by the LDP. It has also voiced support for mandated purchase prices for renewable energy. Uncertainties linger: the proposed 25% emissions cut hinges on co-operation from other big industrialised countries. Meantime, businesses have protested the DPJ's view that added costs from renewable power should be borne by users.