¥ involvement of national policy planners and utility officials;
¥ clear definition of objectives, such as separating R&D and demonstration;
¥ allocating enough resources for planning and appraisal; separation of implementation from appraisal by using different contractors;
¥ integration of projects with national power sector planning;
¥ provision of technical help for planning, implementation, and service;
¥ use of multiple local contractors for infrastructure construction, financed where possible by recipient;
¥ focus on a single technology;
¥ and focus on larger countries to maximise economies of scale.
In Morocco, a factor in the success of a USAID project was use of a local entrepreneur to service the water pumping project by Bergey Windpower. Problems, however, were encountered in Morocco as there was little local training, accountability or involvement. Also at issue was the technology's immaturity, the site's distance from the USAID-sponsored Centre de Development des Energies Renouvelables (CDER), set up to help commercialise renewables in the African country. And there was too little local management, weak technical support from CDER -- and the project was installed during the month-long Ramadan holiday.