Overall, however, economic uncertainty has slowed momentum, with some in the wind sector calling installation of even 1200 MW in 2009 ambitious. As traditional sources of cash investment have dried up and prices for carbon credits for renewables projects plunged to as low as EUR 8 from EUR 22 in the past two months, companies are looking to the MNRE's pilot Generation Based Incentives (GBI) program to attract large independent power producers to the wind sector.
Under the program, grid connected wind power plant with a minimum installed capacity of 5 MW will be eligible for a production incentive of INR 0.50/kWh ($0.01/kWh) to augment revenues from sale of the electricity to utilities under state policies mandating prices for ten years through the Indian Renewable Energy Development Agency. The wind industry is calling for a current 49 MW size cap on projects eligible for the GBI to be lifted, arguing that the difficult economic climate and need for foreign investment justify greater latitude.
According to MNRE, the GBI will encourage developers to achieve high generation output and improve operation and maintenance. Proponents say implementation could boost development this year to 1800 MW. Critics, however, say the program lacks clear guidelines.
Further complicating matters is the advent of political elections in May, which may see the GBI abandoned. "The financial crisis has brought in a new set of priorities for the government and we seriously doubt that renewables will figure on the top. We're back benchers," says Sarvesh Kumar of Vestas RRB India, which has no connections with the Danish firm Vestas. In addition, since the upcoming budget will be a stop-gap until the new government takes over on June 2, no serious decisions are expected until then, likely delaying the GBI further. "We need support now and it is time the policy is introduced," says Madusudan Khemka of turbine start-up ReGen.
A potentially new source of investment could be public sector companies following in the footsteps of oil companies ONGC and NTPC. Indian Railways is also considering investment in about 100 MW of wind capacity. Toward that goal, it is setting up a 10.5 MW wind farm in the Saurashtra region of Gujarat with operation by March 2010.
Domestic manufacturers say stark challenges lie ahead. The grim business climate overseas threatens earnings at Suzlon, which says it expects revenue growth in the US to halve in the fiscal year starting in April. The company reported a loss for the final quarter of 2008, blaming the cost of repairing faulty blades on wind turbines in America and poor currency exchange rates. Although it insists growth will pick up in 2010, it has reduced its intended development in India from 5700 MW to 3200 MW.
Others cast 2010 less positively, saying that is when orders from 2009 will dry up. Many smaller companies that had entered a buoyant market eyeing infusions of private equity now fear going out of business. Suzlon, for its part, believes easing of supply chain bottlenecks will herald a period of consolidation.
Vestas RRB says it does not expect to suffer. "We will survive because we have never borrowed money," says Kumar, whose company exported seven turbines to the US in 2008 and has orders for around another eight for 2009. The firm plans to launch a new turbine of less than 2 MW next month, after months of delays, that he calls "25 years of experience coming together." The first prototype is being tested in Tamil Nadu in high winds and another will go through its paces in Maharashtra or Gujarat.