German electricity utilities invested DEM 4.9 million in wind energy research in 1994, spread across 21 different projects, according to the German utilities' association VDEW. This was nearly 11% of the DEM 45.4 million in total expenditure on 126 renewables and new energy system projects. The VDEW says DEM 393 million is to be spent on projects now running, where the expenditure is spread over a number of years. In the nuclear sector, VDEW members spent a massive DEM 1073 million on research, development and demonstration projects in 1994, compared with just DEM 165 million in the non-nuclear sector. Of this, 27.5% went to renewables.