Rudd was previously parliamentary under secretary of state in the department for energy and climate change under former minister Ed Davey.
Davey was a member of the coalition partner, the Liberal Democrats, in the previous government, but lost his seat in the election.
Rudd was previously a financial journalist and investment banker before entering politics.
RenewableUK chief executive Maria McCaffery welcomed the appointment: "We are pleased to see continuity at the department following her role as energy minister in the previous government."
One of her first decisions in the new role will be to decide the budget for the second round of Contracts for Difference (CfD) auctions, scheduled for October.
The Low Carbon Contracts Company (LCCC), which manages the CfD process, has said July 2015 is the anticipated date to publish the allocation round notice and budget.
Update: Greg Clark has been named secretary of state for communities and local government replacing Eric Pickles.
Between 2008-2010, Clark was shadow energy secretary when the Conservatives were in opposition. He also served as junior minister in the department for communities and local government under Pickles.
During his time at DCLG, Pickles came under regular criticism of his handling of wind project planning applications and became a figurehead of the Conservative Party's opposition to onshore wind.
Analysis by Planning Magazine found Pickles blocked up to 50 turbines being installed in 2014, after going against planning inspectors' recommendations on appeal.