The research by green supplier Ecotricity says that an energy shortage predicted last month by UK regulator Ofgem could become reality unless energy companies invest in renewables.
Using figures from Ofgem, Ecotricity found that none of the UK's main power companies has invested the minimum calculated to meet the government's target of generating 15% of energy from renewables by 2020.
Scottish Power came closest to the minimum, at £25.70, while EDF and Eon each spent less than £5 per customer.
Ecotricity's findings follow a major report last month from Ofgem, in which the regulator said investment of up to £200 billion would be needed to prevent energy shortages in the UK.
Dale Vince, founder of Ecotricity, said: "New sources of renewables are essential for us to solve the twin problems Britain faces: the need to tackle climate change and the need to secure energy independence for Britain. Even Ofgem has now highlighted this as a major problem."