The MOC will look into six renewable energy programmes concerning wind, solar and hydroelectric energy in the states of Washington, Massachusetts, Ohio, New Jersey and California.
The investigation was applied for by China Chamber of Commerce for Imports and Exports of Machinery and Electronic Products, and the new energy chamber of All-China Federation of Industry and Commerce.
MOC said: "The applicants argue that the US government's policy support and subsidies for its renewable-energy industry constitute a trade barrier, because they violate the rules of the World Trade Organisation and have hindered and restricted the development of China's renewable energy sector."
The applicants requested the elimination of any negative influence from the US government's policy support and subsidies in order to maintain a fair trade environment, MOC said.
The MOC said the investigation will end before 25 May, although it may be extended to 25 August under special circumstances.